15 Examples of differences between how a word is written and pronounced in Korean.
Interesting to see how a non-linguist native speaker describes the changes in pronunciation. Another take is my Canadian native English speaker’s non-linguist descriptions in the KDA course.
This is the same topic covered in Integrated Korean’s Hangul Pronunciation Rules. Reading about it in a technical linguistic description can make my eyes cross, but hear a few examples, and it begins to come clear.
Ryan simplifies changes in pronunciation between written and spoken Korean by saying notice the consonants.
Important thing is that you should notice the changing consonants.
One of them should be the letter below and another should follow letter as first. 😉
Rob Julian describes it as the bottom consonant slides up and influences the initial consonant in the next syllable. He is always writing a word on the board, then erasing it and rewriting how it will sound with the consonant changed. This is “linking” of the consonants.
I can do it in pronunciation, even if I forget the terms
- “syllable final closure”,
- “nasal assimilation”,
- “ㄴ to ㄹ assimilation”,
- “aspirations and ㅎ weakening”,
- “double consonant reduction”,
- “palatalization”, and
- “place assimilation”.
Or at least, I am starting to remember, and class helps to correct my pronunciation.
1.writing: 있습니다. -> reading: 이씀니다 (is)
: ㅆ+ㅅ and ㅂ+ㄴ -> moved+ㅆ and ㅁ+ㄴ RULE #3, 7
2. writing: 합니다. -> reading: 함니다 (do)
: ㅂ+ㄴ -> ㅁ+ㄴ RULE #3
3. writing: 갑니다 -> reading: 감니다 (go)
: ㅂ+ㄴ -> ㅁ+ㄴ RULE #3
4. writing: 같습니다 -> reading: 가씀니다 (same)
: ㅌ+ㅅ and ㅂ+ㄴ -> moved+ㅆ and ㅁ+ㄴ RULE #3
5. writing: 있다 -> reading: 이따 (is)
: ㅆ+ㄷ -> moved+ㄸ RULE #5
6. writing: 먹다 -> reading: 먹따 (eat)
: ㄱ+ㄷ -> ㄱ+ㄸ RULE #5
7. writing: 입다 -> reading: 입따 (wear)
: ㅂ+ㄷ ->ㅂ+ㄸ RULE #5
8. writing: 먹는다 -> reading: 멍는다 ( eating )
: ㄱ+ㄴ -> ㅇ+ㄴ
9. writing: 강릉 -> reading: 강능 ( name of Gang-Reung City )
: ㅇ+ㄹ -> ㅇ+ㄴ RULE #4?
10. writing: 없다 -> reading: 업따
: ㅂㅅ+ㄷ -> ㅂ+ㄸ RULE #5
11. writing:없습니다 -> reading: 업슴니다
: ㅂㅅ+ㅅ and ㅂ+ㄴ -> ㅂ and ㅁ+ㄴ RULE#3, 7
12. writing: 먹고 -> reading: 머꼬
: ㄱ+ㄱ -> moved+ㄲ RULE #5
13. writing: 당신은 -> reading: 당시는
: ㄴ+ㅇ -> moved+ㄴ RULE #1
and more advanced expressions ( but rarely used )
1. writing : 갇히다 -> reading: 가치다
: ㄷ+ㅎ -> moved+ㅊ RULE #6
2. writing : 년도 -> reading: 연도 (casual speech?)
: ㄴ should be first location in that letter will change ㅇ
3. writing : 식히다 -> reading : 시키다
: ㄱ+ㅎ -> moved+ㅋ RULE #6