This post grapples with what was presented in KDA class 23 for grammar.
I’m really struggling to pin down what these grammatical structures are and how to write them down. “the guy talking to that girl”.
1. ~한테 particle meaning ‘to’ (preferred in speech)
Pattern: N (person, animal) + 한테
2. Progressive tense – ‘ing’ the continuing of an action
Pattern: V-고 있다
3. Turning 형용사 descriptive verb/adjective into noun modifier
Pattern: A – ㄴ /은 (Past & present tense)
A – ㄹ / 을 (future tense)
4. Turning 동사 action verb into noun modifier
Pattern: V – ㄴ /은 (Past tense)
V – 는 (Present tense) [for ㄹ verbs drop the final ㄹ]
V – ㄹ /을 (Future tense)
5. Duration – How much time has passed ‘since’ an action occurred
Pattern: ~(으)ㄴ + 지 (time) 되다
6. Do you know … who, where, what
Pattern: ~(으)ㄴ + 지 V
I still find the grammar for sticking -요 onto a noun and putting it in the place of a verb to be confusing, as in 남자요.
I’m sorting out in my head that putting and ㄴ can change a clause into a modifier for a noun, such as “red shirt wearing man”.
Changing a preposition phrase “to that girl” into a noun + hante and putting it at the front of a clause before changing the whole thing to a modifier of “guy” takes some getting use to. I take comfort that modifiers of nouns ALWAYS appear before the noun in Korean. I sigh in relief to discover that random ㄴ thing has a name. It is a conjunctive ending. By applying the special conjunctive ending, you can turn a verb into a modifier and use it to describe a noun.
I remain uncomfortable that the way I am describing the grammar for duration and progressive tense isn’t quite accurate. It will have to do for now until I understand it better. It doesn’t convey that the ㄴ can go on the last word of a clause, not just on a single word, which really troubles me. I remain pretty uncomfortable with these whatchamacallits … grammar patterns for things less than a sentence but more than a word. clause grammar? sentence word order? Whatever it is, I am not yet accepting it. Which of course is absurd, but I don’t have the right words to explain how it doesn’t fit into my current system of understanding grammar, so is like a discordant note. I will have to keep working at it until understanding comes.
I want a unified grammar theory … a set of notations and rules that can describe all Korean grammar. I am building it from scratch in my head, and the incomplete structure offends my sense of order. Haha.
Plus there is totally not enough pictures! Haha.