William G. Perry, Jr. was an educational psychologist who studied the cognitive development of students during their college years.
As a novice learner, I’m still at the stage of trusting my tutor knows what is right.
|Forms of Intellectual Development||Basic Example|
|The authorities know||e.g. “the tutor knows what is right and wrong”|
|The true authorities are right, the others are frauds||e.g. “my tutor doesn’t know what is right and wrong but others do”|
|There are some uncertainties and the authorities are working on them to find the truth||e.g. “my tutors don’t know, but somebody out there is trying to find out”|
|(a)Everyone has right to their own opinion
(b) The authorities don’t want the right answers. They want us to think in certain way
|e.g. “different tutors think different things”
e.g. “there is an answer that the tutors want and we have to find it”
|Everything is relative but not equally valid||e.g. “there are no right and wrong answers, it depends on the situation, but some answers might be better than others”|
|You have to make your own decisions||e.g. “what is important is not what the tutor thinks but what I think”|
|First commitment||e.g. “for this particular topic I think that….”|
|Several Commitments||e.g. “for these topics I think that….”|
|Believe own values, respect others, be ready to learn||e.g. “I know what I believe in and what I think is valid, others may think differently and I’m prepared to reconsider my views”|