KDA Class 14

Topics covered in Korean Digital Academy Class 14.

  • Clock theory / Nuts and Bolts of verb conjugation
  • Conjugating “o” verbs
  • V + ~게 to make an adverb
  • Frequency adverbs (often, always)
  • ~랑 “with”
  • which 어느, 무슨


  • Learn crucial skill of verb conjugation
  • Apply it to conjugating “o” verbs
  • Ask questions who, what, where, when, with whom?
  • Answer in present and past tense
  • Make adverbs, adjectives, and gerunds
  • Mini conversations with follow up questions

These are notes I’ve taken on class 14.  It covers the vocabulary, grammar structures, grammar terms, and conjugation in present tense of “o” verbs.

Korean English Part of Speech
보다 to watch action verb
놀다 * to play action verb
오다 to come action verb
가져오다 to bring action verb
들어오다 to come in action verb
노오다 to come out action verb
높다 to be high descriptive verb
좋다 to be good descriptive verb
 산 mountain noun
 나라 country noun
 자주 often adverb
 저기 / 거기 there adverb*
 그냥 just adverb, adj**
 항상 always adverb
어느, 어떤,  무슨 which, what pronoun,

‘*[Note:   If there is modifying a verb, it’s an adverb.  There may also be a pronoun.]

**[“Just” can be both an adjective, as in “a just cause,” and an adverb, as in “I just got home.” Remember, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.]



[명사] Noun  [대명사] Pronoun

[형용사] Descriptive verb (also called adjective)  [동사] Action verb

[타동사] Transitive verb is an action verb and must have a direct object, something or someone who receives the action of the verb.

Ex. Julia kicked James under the table.
Kicked = transitive verb; James = direct object.

[자동사] Intransitive verb is an action verb, expressing a doable activity like come, go, see, sit. Unlike a transitive verb, it will not have a direct object receiving the action.

Ex. Julia sits.

Realize that many verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. An action verb with a direct object is transitive while an action verb with no direct object is intransitive.

Ex.  Julia eats. (intransitive)  Julia eats an apple.  (transitive)

[부사] Adverb  [한정사] Determiner  [접속사] Conjunction  [감탄사] Interjection

Particle English Pattern
~랑/이랑  with Nv + 랑
Nc + 이랑
 ~하고 and, with (spoken) N + 하고
 ~와/과  and, with (written) Nc + 과
Nv +  와


Korean English Adverbs
~게 to make adverb
A + 게
 많이  many
일찍  early
 빨리  quickly
 조금  little
 천천히  slowly

V = active verb stem
A = descriptive verb stem
S = active or descriptive verb stem
“동사(action verb)” and “형용사(descriptive verb)” together is called “용언” (predicate).


Making Adjectives.  This table is confusing.   Basically, you can turn a verb into a noun modifier.  Endings get added to the verb.  If the verb stem end in a ㄹ, it gets dropped  [Vㄹ + + ending].

If you get confused by the difference between descriptive verbs  and noun modifiers (adjectives), see Rob’s supplemental video on that topic.  It confused me at first too.

Korean English Noun Modifiers (Adjectives)
A +ㄴ/ 은 Present tense  [형용사] Adj Av + ㄴ
Ac + 은   pattern 4
V + 는 Present tense  [동사] Verb V + 는  pattern 2
A/V +ㄴ/ 은 Past tense  [동사] & [형용사] Sv + ㄴ
Sc + 은  pattern 4
 A/V +ㄹ/을  Future tense  [동사] & [형용사] Sv + ㄹ
Sc + 을  pattern 4

Below is a drawing I did of the patterns described in Tuttle’s “Mastering Conversational Korean”.  The clock theory is pattern 4.


KDA Class 14 “ㅗ” – vowel contraction [ㅗ ㅏ -> ㅘ]

Verb English Present Past Future
보다 to watch  봐요 봤어요  볼 거예요
놀다 * to play 놀아요 놀았어요  놀 거예요
오다 to come 와요 왔어요  올 거예요
가져오다 to bring 가져와요 가져왔어요 가져올 거예요
들어오다 to come in  들어와요 들어왔어요 들어올 거예요
노오다 to come out  노와요  노왔어요  노올 거예요
높다 to be high 높아요  높았어요  높을 거예요
좋다 to be good  좋아요 좋았어요  좋을 거예요

* 불규칙 동사 (irregular verb)
Here I tried using a story to remember the “o” verbs.

Here is a mind map to help remember the verbs by relating the to one another.

come_in visual connections


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