Topics covered in Korean Digital Academy Class 14.
- Clock theory / Nuts and Bolts of verb conjugation
- Conjugating “o” verbs
- V + ~게 to make an adverb
- Frequency adverbs (often, always)
- ~랑 “with”
- which 어느, 무슨
- Learn crucial skill of verb conjugation
- Apply it to conjugating “o” verbs
- Ask questions who, what, where, when, with whom?
- Answer in present and past tense
- Make adverbs, adjectives, and gerunds
- Mini conversations with follow up questions
These are notes I’ve taken on class 14. It covers the vocabulary, grammar structures, grammar terms, and conjugation in present tense of “o” verbs.
|Korean||English||Part of Speech|
|보다||to watch||action verb|
|놀다 *||to play||action verb|
|오다||to come||action verb|
|가져오다||to bring||action verb|
|들어오다||to come in||action verb|
|노오다||to come out||action verb|
|높다||to be high||descriptive verb|
|좋다||to be good||descriptive verb|
|저기 / 거기||there||adverb*|
|어느, 어떤, 무슨||which, what||pronoun,
‘*[Note: If there is modifying a verb, it’s an adverb. There may also be a pronoun.]
**[“Just” can be both an adjective, as in “a just cause,” and an adverb, as in “I just got home.” Remember, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.]
[명사] Noun [대명사] Pronoun
[형용사] Descriptive verb (also called adjective) [동사] Action verb
[타동사] Transitive verb is an action verb and must have a direct object, something or someone who receives the action of the verb.
Ex. Julia kicked James under the table.
Kicked = transitive verb; James = direct object.
[자동사] Intransitive verb is an action verb, expressing a doable activity like come, go, see, sit. Unlike a transitive verb, it will not have a direct object receiving the action.
Ex. Julia sits.
Realize that many verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. An action verb with a direct object is transitive while an action verb with no direct object is intransitive.
Ex. Julia eats. (intransitive) Julia eats an apple. (transitive)
[부사] Adverb [한정사] Determiner [접속사] Conjunction [감탄사] Interjection
|~랑/이랑||with||Nv + 랑
Nc + 이랑
|~하고||and, with (spoken)||N + 하고|
|~와/과||and, with (written)||Nc + 과
Nv + 와
|~게||to make adverb
|A + 게|
V = active verb stem
A = descriptive verb stem
S = active or descriptive verb stem
“동사(action verb)” and “형용사(descriptive verb)” together is called “용언” (predicate).
Making Adjectives. This table is confusing. Basically, you can turn a verb into a noun modifier. Endings get added to the verb. If the verb stem end in a ㄹ, it gets dropped [Vㄹ +
If you get confused by the difference between descriptive verbs and noun modifiers (adjectives), see Rob’s supplemental video on that topic. It confused me at first too.
|Korean||English||Noun Modifiers (Adjectives)|
|A +ㄴ/ 은||Present tense [형용사] Adj||Av + ㄴ
Ac + 은 pattern 4
|V + 는||Present tense [동사] Verb||V + 는 pattern 2|
|A/V +ㄴ/ 은||Past tense [동사] & [형용사]||Sv + ㄴ
Sc + 은 pattern 4
|A/V +ㄹ/을||Future tense [동사] & [형용사]||Sv + ㄹ
Sc + 을 pattern 4
Below is a drawing I did of the patterns described in Tuttle’s “Mastering Conversational Korean”. The clock theory is pattern 4.
KDA Class 14 “ㅗ” – vowel contraction [ㅗ ㅏ -> ㅘ]
|보다||to watch||봐요||봤어요||볼 거예요|
|놀다 *||to play||놀아요||놀았어요||놀 거예요|
|오다||to come||와요||왔어요||올 거예요|
|가져오다||to bring||가져와요||가져왔어요||가져올 거예요|
|들어오다||to come in||들어와요||들어왔어요||들어올 거예요|
|노오다||to come out||노와요||노왔어요||노올 거예요|
|높다||to be high||높아요||높았어요||높을 거예요|
|좋다||to be good||좋아요||좋았어요||좋을 거예요|
* 불규칙 동사 (irregular verb)
Here I tried using a story to remember the “o” verbs.
Here is a mind map to help remember the verbs by relating the to one another.