Terms

Here are the Korean names for grammar terms.  See K-maru for more information about grammar.

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  • 시제 Tense
    Tense refers the time when an action, event, or situation happens. We classify it into past, present, and future. In Korean, tense especially important since the verb/adjective endings vary depending on the tense.
  • 독립언 Exclamation
  • 수신언 determiner
    “수식” means “modification”. “수식언” ellaborates the sentence, but is not that necessary. “수식언” includes “관형사” and “부사”, which modifies “체언” and “용언” repectively.
  • 관계언 post-position word
    “관계” means “relationship”. “관계언” indicates “조사(postpositions)”, which shows the relationship between words.
  • 용언 predicate
    “동사(verbs)” and “형용사(adjectives)” together is called “용언”. ‘용’ means ‘changing forms’ here. “용언” consists of two parts called “어간(stem)” and “어미(ending)”, and the ending varies according to the context.
  • 체언 substantives
    “명사(nouns)”, “대명사(pronouns)”, “수사(numerals)” altogether is called “체언”. “체언” is followed by postpositions (though postpositions are dropped sometimes) and it does not change its form.
  • 품사 part of speech
    “품사” is a grammatical class of word. There are nine parts of speech in Korean. They are nouns, pronouns, numerals, verbs, adjectives, determiners, adverbs, postpotistions, and exclamations.
  • 어미 ending
    Korean verbs and adjectives consist of two parts; “어간” is the former part which always remains the same. The latter part is called “어미” which changes into various forms in different contexts, usually according to the tense, respect form, etc.
  • 어간 stem
    Korean verbs and adjectives consist of two parts; “어간” is the former part which always remains the same. The latter part is called “어미” which changes into various forms in different contexts, usually according to the tense, respect form, etc.
  • 받침 final consonant
  • 글자 letter
    Each korean letter is called a “글자”.
  • 문장 sentence
  • clause
    “절” has a subject and a verb, but it is not a sentence in itself. “절” is only used as a part of one full sentence, functioning as noun cluse, predicate clause, adjective clause, adnominal clause, quotated clause.
  • phrase
    “구” is a simple group of words, and those words do not make up a sentence. There are noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective phrase, adnominal phrase, adverb phrase.
    “그녀는 정말 아름다웠다.” is “She was very beautiful”, “정말 아름다웠다” is a adjective phrase. “너는 노래를 아주 잘 한다.” is “You sing very well”, “아주 잘” is a adverb phrase.
  • 어절 syntactic word
    In Korean sentences, letters written together without a space is called “어절”.
    “숙제를 하느라 밤을 꼬박 세웠다”. This sentence has 5 syntactic words(“숙제를”, “하느라”, “밤을”, “꼬박”, “세웠다”).
  • 단어 Word – smallest unit that can be used independently
  • 형태소 Morpheme – smallest unit of meaning
  • 음절 Syllable
  • 자음 Consonant
  • 모음 Vowel
  • 음운 Phoneme – smallest unit of sound
  • 문법용어 Syntax

 

Constituents of a Sentence

Essential constituent

  • Subject
  • Predicate
  • Object
  • Complement
  • Essential Adverb

Optional constituent

  • Adjective
  • Adverb
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One Response to Terms

  1. Pingback: Nonesense and Grammar thing-a-bobs | Hanguk Babble

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