KNote 14

Class 14

Topics covered in Korean Digital Academy Class 14.

  • Clock theory / Nuts and Bolts of verb conjugation
  • Conjugating “o” verbs
  • V + ~게 to make an adverb
  • Frequency adverbs (often, always)
  • ~랑 “with”
  • which 어느, 무슨


  • Learn crucial skill of verb conjugation
  • Apply it to conjugating “o” verbs
  • Ask questions who, what, where, when, with whom?
  • Answer in present and past tense
  • Make adverbs, adjectives, and gerunds
  • Mini conversations with follow up questions

These are notes I’ve taken on class 14.  It covers the vocabulary, grammar structures, grammar terms, and conjugation in present tense of “o” verbs.

Korean English Part of Speech
보다 to watch action verb
놀다 * to play action verb
오다 to come action verb
가져오다 to bring action verb
들어오다 to come in action verb
나오다 to come out action verb
높다 to be high descriptive verb
좋다 to be good descriptive verb
 산 mountain noun
 나라 country noun
 자주 often adverb
 저기 / 거기 there adverb*
 그냥 just adverb, adj**
 항상 always adverb
어느, 어떤,  무슨 which, what pronoun,

‘*[Note:   If there is modifying a verb, it’s an adverb.  There may also be a pronoun.]

**[“Just” can be both an adjective, as in “a just cause,” and an adverb, as in “I just got home.” Remember, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.]

이리 와.  Come over here.
왜 안 오셨어요? Why didn’t you come?



Particle English Pattern
~랑/이랑  with Nv + 랑
Nc + 이랑
 ~하고 and, with (spoken) N + 하고
 ~와/과  and, with (written) Nc + 과
Nv +  와


Korean English Adverbs
~게 to make adverb
A + 게
 많이  many
일찍  early
 빨리  quickly
 조금  little
 천천히  slowly

V = active verb stem
A = descriptive verb stem
S = active or descriptive verb stem
“동사(action verb)” and “형용사(descriptive verb)” together is called “용언” (predicate).


Making Adjectives.  This table is confusing.   Basically, you can turn a verb into a noun modifier.  Endings get added to the verb.  If the verb stem end in a ㄹ, it gets dropped  [Vㄹ + + ending].

If you get confused by the difference between descriptive verbs  and noun modifiers (adjectives), see Rob’s supplemental video on that topic.  It confused me at first too.

Korean English Noun Modifiers (Adjectives)
A +ㄴ/ 은 Present tense  [형용사] Adj Av + ㄴ
Ac + 은   pattern 4
V + 는 Present tense  [동사] Verb V + 는  pattern 2
A/V +ㄴ/ 은 Past tense  [동사] & [형용사] Sv + ㄴ
Sc + 은  pattern 4
 A/V +ㄹ/을  Future tense  [동사] & [형용사] Sv + ㄹ
Sc + 을  pattern 4

Below is a drawing I did of the patterns described in Tuttle’s “Mastering Conversational Korean”.  The clock theory is pattern 4.


KDA Class 14 “ㅗ” – vowel contraction [ㅗ ㅏ -> ㅘ]

Verb English Present Past Future
보다 to watch  봐요 봤어요  볼 거예요
놀다 * to play 놀아요 놀았어요  놀 거예요
오다 to come 와요 왔어요  올 거예요
가져오다 to bring 가져와요 가져왔어요 가져올 거예요
들어오다 to come in  들어와요 들어왔어요 들어올 거예요
나오다 to come out  나와요  나왔어요  나올 거예요
높다 to be high 높아요  높았어요  높을 거예요
좋다 to be good  좋아요 좋았어요  좋을 거예요

* 불규칙 동사 (irregular verb)
Here I tried using a story to remember the “o” verbs.

Here is a mind map to help remember the verbs by relating the to one another.

come_in visual connections

Questions & Answers Class 14
Where are you?
At a friend’s house, at home, in Suncheon. at the park
What are you doing there?
Just hanging out, watching a movie with my boyfriend, eating, playing soccer
Have fun, enjoy watching the movie, enjoy your meal


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